Help - Retraction Database

Explanations of the fields in the details page

Item ID:

This number allows you to find all of the associated records in the database. The item number will also show a type of entry, i.e., 0101o for the original; 0101r, for the retraction. Some items have more than one retraction.. This usually occurs when the same letter, covering several original articles is sent to multiple journals or when two authors issue retractions. Searching by just the number will bring up all the records associated with the record number.



Since the database is small, it is recommended that the searcher use the author's last name, first initial. The entries include all authors and all are searchable. In some instances, the authorship on the original article is not the same as the authorship on the retraction. If both the original article and retraction do not display when searched, use the item number to retrieve the other part of the pair. If the retraction was not specifically signed, the original authors appear in parenthesis and the entry begins with Anon. The use of "we" in the text of the retraction does not always include all authors. Some retractions are made by corporate authors and if no name is included, the proper entity appears as the author, i.e., The Editor, The Publisher, (the name of the Journal). If the retraction was specifically unsigned, the original authors appear in parentheses and the entry begins with Anon.



The journal name appear in full, with the exception of any initial article. An ampersand, &, has been replaced with the word, "and."


English Title / English Translation:

The words in the title are searchable. Unfortunately, the search will include words in the title of the journal as well as the words in the article title. Cardiology will retrieve titles with the words cardiology in the title as well as American Journal of Cardiology. Since there are relatively few foreign titles, words in non-English articles retrieve just those items in which the words appear in the title. Initial articles, the or a, If the title of the original article is repeated, with the word "retraction", appearing at the beginning or the end of the title, only the word Retraction, is used as the title. If there is a unique title, it appears in full. Initial articles, the or a have been removed from the title. have been removed from the title. Searching for two words will treat the words as connected with "or", not "and". You will receive all items with either word as well as those with both words.


Non-English Title:

The non-English title appears in full.


Volume / Issue:

The volume and the issue number of the journal appear as volume(number), i.e., 291(14).


Page Numbers:

The page number follows the volume(issue number). Occasionally the page number is not given but the location of the blank page appears, i.e., following title page.


Publication Date:

The year appears in full, if more than two years would have appeared, i.e.,1991-1992, the first year is used. The date for the month appears as XX, if a range of months appears on the published item, the first month has been used.


Medline ID:

This field includes Medline identification number, Unique Identifier. Since Medline often combines the original and the retraction into one entry, the combined number will be listed only as the original number when this occurs.


Other ID:

The first column is reserved for the Medline unique identification number's. The second column contains any other printed or electronic source used. The abbreviations are:
ag - Agricola
ba - Biological Abstracts
ca - Chemical Abstracts
co - Compendex, the year at the beginning of the number has been deleted for spacee considerations
ei - Engineering Index
in - Inspec
me -Medline
pa - Psychological Abstracts, the phrase peer Reviewed Journal has been omitted, a book would be noted in the media field
mr - Mathematical Reviews or MathSciNet
PREV- Biological Abstracts Previews
sa-Sociological Abstracts SCI - Science Citation Index
SD - Science Direct
WS - Web of Science



The original language of the item is given in this column. It is not uncommon to have a second retraction in English when the original language is not English. Where given, a translation appears for the original title. For non-Roman alphabet titles, a transliteration appears if given.


Retraction Type:

Shows "O" for original and an "R" for retraction.



Media Field contains an E if the publication appeared in an electronic version. An E does not appear if there is a print version. Often a copy appears only in the advanced electronic publication. B is used for Book. If no media is given, then a print journal should be assumed.



ORI Field